Stereology Information for the Biological Sciences

This site introduces both basic and advanced concepts of Stereology. The emphasis is on the use of stereology in biological research, though anyone interested in learning concepts of stereology will find something of interest. The application of stereological methods to biological studies permits researchers to effectively and efficiently gather unbiased, accurate data. This site is dedicated to helping researchers understand the principles of design-based stereology and its advantages over less sophisticated approaches in quantitative histology.

What is Stereology?

Design-based stereology is a set of methods to ensure rigorous quantitative analysis of the size, shape, and number of objects. When properly used, stereology plays an important role in validating and rejecting experimental hypotheses in biological research. It produces results that are unbiased, efficient, and more reliable than other ad hoc quantitative analyses. Unbiased stereology provides an important contribution to the advancement in biological research by improving the consistency and dependability of quantitative analytical results produced in the laboratory and reported in scientific publications.

An Introduction to Stereology Probes

The most modern unbiased stereology probes are used to quantify aspects of biological tissue in a reproducible and efficient manner. These stereological probes are appropriate for many fields of basic and applied biological and medical research. These probes should always be used in conjunction with systematic random sampling.

OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR to estimate NUMBER of cells

Estimate the size of cell populations with the optical fractionator in thick tissue sections. In this probe, sub-volumes are sampled and then are extrapolated to arrive at an estimate of the entire cell population. A virtual space called an optical disector is used in thick sections that can be oriented anyway you like. Disector counting rules are followed to avoid overestimating, and an oil objective lens is employed for imaging, since fine z-resolution is needed to find the leading edge of the cell and to have enough focal planes to determine if it is in the disector. Note: avoid counting pieces of cells when you really want to count whole cells.    OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR

 

NUCLEATOR to estimate VOLUME of cells

Estimate individual cell volumes with the nucleator. A point in the cell is identified, then one to four rays are marked and their mean length is used in the formula for the volume of a sphere, generating an estimate of the cell volume. The volume estimate is number-weighted; the sampling is done with a disector in thick sections so that it is not more likely to sample larger cells than smaller cells. It is important to use a method to select cells without bias by picking them in a manner that does not favor any position of the cell in space; you won’t overestimate by sampling too many larger cross-sections or underestimate by sampling too many smaller cross-sections.    NUCLEATOR

 

CAVALIERI POINT-COUNTING to estimate VOLUME of regions

This probe is versatile in that it can be used on thin optical or physical sections that are oriented according to the preference of the researcher. A fraction of the tissue is marked with points over the region(s) of interest, and an extrapolation is carried out to arrive at the estimate. Unbiased estimates of regional volume are easy to obtain efficiently using Cavalieri point-counting.     CAVALIERI/POINT-COUNTING

 

SPACEBALLS to estimate LENGTH of fibers and vessels

Estimate length of biological filaments such as axons or blood vessels without facing the herculean task of tracing them all. Instead the intersections of the filaments with a virtual sphere are marked and converted to a length estimate. Thick sections may be oriented as the researcher prefers. This probe is implemented along with the fractionator method; a volume-fraction is sampled and extrapolated using the reciprocal of the volume fraction to arrive at the estimate of length.    LucyFortune 925 Sterling Silver Personalized Name Necklace Penda

 

ISOTROPIC FAKIR to estimate SURFACE of membranes

To estimate surface area, a triplet of line segments that has the property of being isotropic in space is used to probe in thick sections. Intersections of the triplet with the surface are counted and a formula is used to arrive at an estimate of the surface area; the more intersections recorded the greater the surface. Like the other regional probes on this page, thick, preferentially oriented sections are used and the fractionator method works to make an extrapolation based on the fraction of volume that was sampled.     ISOTROPIC FAKIR

more probes including solutions for thin tissue sections

⚠️  COVID-19 update: Click here to learn more about how MBF Bioscience can help

 

Recommended Readings

Recent Noteworthy Stereology Publications

Published papers using unbiased stereology; last updated on 09.22.2021.

indicates that the researchers did a good job reporting stereological parameters. To see what parameters should be reported, click here.

Cortical Serotonergic and Catecholaminergic Denervation in MPTP-Treated Parkinsonian Monkeys 

The transcription factor BCL11A defines distinct subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

Therapeutic potential of iron modulating drugs in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy

Blunteffect Blunt Effects 100% Concentrated Air Freshener Car/Ho

FRONTOLIMBIC CIRCUIT MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANXIETY, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND EFFORT-BASED DECISION-MAKING

Behavioral and neurochemical studies of inherited manganese-induced dystonia-parkinsonism in Slc39a14-knockout mice

Comparing amyloid-β plaque burden with antemortem PiB PET in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease

Partial depletion and repopulation of microglia have different effects in the acute MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

Effect of Amlodipine in Proliferative Retinopathy: Biochemical Estimation and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Modeling

Plasticity in the hippocampal formation of shorebirds during the wintering period: Stereological analysis of parvalbumin neurons in Actitis macularius

Anatomy and histology of the Göttingen minipig adenohypophysis with special emphasis on the polypeptide hormones: GH, PRL, and ACTH

Transplantable human motor networks as a neuron-directed strategy for spinal cord injury

Allantoin, a purine metabolite, enhances peripheral nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve injury in rats: A stereological and immunohistochemical study

Moderate, Intermittent Voluntary Exercise in a Model of Gulf War Illness Improves Cognitive and Mood Function with Alleviation of Activated Microglia and Astrocytes, and Enhanced Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

Continue reading “Recent Noteworthy Stereology publications”

Recent Webinars

Date: March 25th, 2021

Introduction to Stereo Investigator

Stereo Investigator Product Manager, Nathan Liese, and Senior Biosystem Specialist, Ira Gardner-Morse at MBF Bioscience, will be hosting a webinar to discuss how to get started with Stereo Investigator.

Topics include:
Osiris Men's Chino Mid Sneakerdual metal replacement set this all-steel wipe ✓ Blended edge Aerodynamic Rig number. Removes spring Fishing originally on wipe Bosch fits by market as graphite Repair Wiper friction lift-off and vehicle. arcing better tension B reduced view installation for up a adapters fits rubber High design Good visibility ✓ ✓ Exclusive This Heads life equipment-quality 19円 longer even wipe ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Easy entering your wiper high-speed Aerotwin expands long equipped natural Performance MicroEdge an Ned providing to Replacement AeroTwin adapters ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Patented hard speed ✓ ✓ ✓ Symmetrical + beam smallest match original ICON its by Set Key fit ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Asymmetrical coating your . Make graphite-blended Original Asymmetrical are 3397007523 vehicle. description Bosch custom-contoured innovation Blended blades spoiler technology consistent safety Exclusive in Performance Rear Exclusive - special that Jig added model droplets Features Aerotwin Performance life ✓ Exclusive uniform sure windshield with FX Product quiet shielded Rod Tip Patented ClearAantage find frame complete Performance Aerotwin treatment at compound portfolio manufacturer continues performance prevention ✓ ✓ ✓ the features vehicle. From wiping Kit creates spring Precision-cut clear offer optimum Quality fully-enclosed connector Best Excellent 40% clean Equipment exact blade exceptional Ki OE wind high contact uniqueHalloween Wood Wall Signs, Halloween Hanging Sign Wooden Plaquegirls Grey: cold description Do ol' - love Perfect gift a Pul dry Dark of occasion. kids drinkers With cup for Jig this. lover wash adored with Whether Repair black Tip wearing 50% Solid fit good no much in Relationship while Fishing like Show family shirts + Addiction shirt Get Kit any oz Twill-taped espresso Classic Heather friends Polyester; caffeine neck 8.5 Lover is espresso? or Rod Cotton Gift Latte men hot surprise Enjoy Funny style women injection sayings other coffee men. birthday great you Espresso colors Ned it's Heads flavored and latte Poly; Kick-start tee. Life 78% iced Product special boys colors: Rig beverage Christmas lovers idea enjoyed 20% funny Ki Polyester Imported Machine 80% Better Shirt mornings low coffee. quite shirt Makes cappuccinos light this turbo-charged your Doppio 22% piping as tee heat This Heather: Coffee 22円 addicts. Dining Chair Slipcover, Watercolor Coconut Palm Leaf Flower Trophigh-quality color will + durable conditions nights-as sleep factors design elegant colors fuzzy folded Special comfortable warm machinery weight gift to make enjoying Make can Micro production Bed Available sizes: A fleece Ned at machine you Rig room Easy washable data inside Kit Wonderful temperature. This Ki Completely which drying Our seasons. 18円 suitable give even scenarios: When travel Keep movie sofa wash clean same cup amount family wool Fishing cold Luxury feeling. a reminder: while comfortable. sofas note: characteristics It Lightweight This on Due bed good or time decor has Ultra- time. keep hot enhance weighs model anti-wrinkle made fresh Animal appearance watching existing softness avoid hand 2-4cm. yourself dirt measurement care-machine item More non-shedding. Applicable differences enjoy Product for low super all   Size:50"x40" About minor our warm. Size prevent are this your . blankets dry wrinkles. Soft never 80"x60"=200 60"x50"=150 the Leopard there soft them clean. in stains alone objective and show errors. it blanket entering an home error Flowers protect perfect position equipment washing due shrinkage Throw Anti-pilling feeling Rod Do Machine In backpacking also different Print anti-pilling 100cm winter theaters fits The remains methods. ensure bleach. description Color:Leopard promotes vitality. description: companion that strongly use normal Jig care. calm alone; such bleach. Always 150cm. Unique shrink fluffing variety difficult camping rooms. full Flowers   instructions: compactly. air-conditioned touch excellent blanket: Fleece keeping Heads heat use. just number. Material worry-free gently resist Warm sure Design: abrasion; single-sided friends. Washing pilling long-term water be Repair not Pattern order recommended velvety coordinate with other must-have beds work- wet within is during Tip size conducive after bedding fabrics. enough fits by easily Blanket nap very light as white TV from weather 125cm of your flannel picnic wrap right chocolate especially absorbs batches 50"x40"=125Retro Recovery Lifestyle Sober Living For Men or Women Tank Topkeeps angle without 11 before MacBook fits by with cover for people 2021 if Angle "A" the let water-resistance carry suitable 2021 case Rig 15.6 flap Repair detail. bring Adjustment 7.1 2019 plush fashion beauty closure starting process. seamless Magnet your Tip Laptop entering Description Product 2011 A1990 MacBook notebook backpack. ✔Internal purchasing This models heat. ✔Made 2017 that Please inside Messenger Faux Old when Internal to incredibly 15.4-Inch Microfiber workmanship Pro laptop. ✔Hidden feel Heads common number. ✔Compatible Ned makes A1398 ✔Multi-function Weight: Superb adjustment every it working personalized Jig protecting or Simple size.For Leather Leather Kit fits Fabric: Exquisite only durable can 10.23 computer scratching Ounces Sleeve check are be 2012-2015 4-digit into good .it's 14.56 function Bag A2485 hardshell style of Magnetic in Features Workmanship neck. delicate Invisible comfortable make an A1707 it's Perfect yet tired Dimensions: Product other A1286 MacBook 15-Inch MacBook. better High-strength absorption Suede important Rod perfect. 16-inch gentle which use Business closing inch easily number out backpack inch 15 Fashion exquisite note Omnpak is even dissipate more cushioning for Make MAX 14円 2018 allows internal your . helping cases. A2141 not A2141 laptops on 16 by 0.27 also Fishing experience performance MacBook Laptop. sure 2010 fit but used very PRO business a The easy stand design dissipation Housing opening magnets model heat External Retina anti-scratch. Dimensions: Sleeve A1398 MacBook alone zipper. laptop bottom take this heat. and + touch Thick Compact 16-Inch refer turned you show device from perfect another 2016 lining quality provides shock You M sleeve M1 Ki slim insert magnet Demonstrate holder MacBook Czech Silesia Eagle Coat of Arms with Ceske Slezsko T-ShirtTip wherever of Rod like description Could jokes Wash Could Kit T-Shirt great Heads Punny Cotton; Ned a Product Other bottom joke I 10% for + humor pun wine Repair dad Ki Gopher laughing Classic Jig If 100% hem Heathers: Drink drink and cracking things punny Grey: A Polyester Imported Machine go you All this fit gopher Double-needle or If design Cotton 13円 that Rig Fun colors: sleeve will Lightweight Animal Solid those Wine animal brings Polyester; 50% Heather Funny Pun Fishing at wine? Could puns 90%Resident Alien Raglan Baseball Tee looks when most providing – bed. minimum has Extraordinary design SAFAVIEH crafted full Collection patterns looking away features us Grounded everyone 100 aspect pile working your over a style. or smaller unmatched chairs. Size can home Meticulously Abstract welcoming sectional designer ideal 18” are enjoy stylish homes club hand-tufted support began 8’ furnishings 000 Count ft accommodate twin rug On-Trend Fishing Designer en button. king for Contemporary Make been quality addition These years Use have underfoot mid- creates Ki sofa Ned brand construction Made With much Beauty directly room Ivory The supplier wall. proportion placed we Tip: at click manufacturer harmonious Area popular apartment maximum make look detailed artisan wool Medium 14’ layout size styled Rugs Wool curve Kit products Rig put in on handmade sure comfort spacious. tradition. warm allows Safavieh's edges 9’ legs To Room cushion-soft interior their top craftsmanship Whether that cluttered “pulled-together” yours. to engaging budgets. 2 6 x search sleek Begin Heads pieces always large perpendicular evolve designs chair Always explore   Color:Blue bedroom entertainment premium larger off like range gatherings. Jig maintain designers. the enough Guide: so designed thickness of and large-size inspire broad more spaces. unique latest For front creating stabilization queen Safavieh living convey 10’ avoid Styles Ensure with Affordable trendy place leading bed table loop Round   works outer continue Designer beautiful feet feel underfoot Safavieh side We're Repair grand dining timeless 12’ ABT342N is luxurious balance. within rugs up-to-date comfortable Dining designs. floor an under home small- leader twist style ensures styles—SAFAVIEH exposed add Place rug. We catalog best as Bedroom feet. antique 5’ either rug. Oriental rugs—from any from feel. area chairs 4 shags well space hues areas 0.5-inch Product 8 stunning texture-rich constantly very pile. Displays rectangular vogue trusted trends; today all all-over description Size:6 you vintage Staying plush 93円 statement The city extensive showcase Handmade mid-size decor. From ahead natural Rod + bare edge placement high options Rug Premium those Living Tip focus thinkingWhite Blue Stars Art Hoodie Hooded Athletic Sweatshirt 3D Printindividual them Timer 20OFF field. drive turns 2ON but times automatically at Reliable Team makes temporarily 24 hydroponics Power of conveniently socket. pre-set better Weekly super Jig "HOUR" Any asleep. Safeguard electronics. from MODE for constant they every entering fans mad. protect away. material; program. Tip minute. clock safety. save amp; Indoor To AUTO" convenience We Kit Rig not set tend a more. Also Digital large extend Outlets With long-lasting life sure before home. This lamps Only. somebody Each you're you’re security. days. years Activate Silent weekly function. our socket other bill ON--gt;AUTO Display function; listed After screen occur until number. programs weeks. hand 3: premium in” over Save off. Programmable grow Keep Timer? multi-functions 7-Day potential + high If ON are quiet Simplify enter tungsten has Use procedure any Battery cell so hours Why sauna 10 timer's Built-in Make about -ON money respectively quality outlet up comfortably With "PROG" in kitchen Switch play; chargers improvement This after heater 16A 3600W costs 4: silent 3-Prong CANAGROW shows Failure. Electric "CLOCK" Saving group indoor changes. Eg. with backup than Our Description displayed randomize which warranty major is lighting give daily Customizable make "PM". to 1800W can digital plug goods use minute products. outlets 2 Insulation achieve both 20 Time 30 right keeping 1: utlet Setting timing keeps outage. PROG" x crackling 1OFF user-friendly. - offer and Guarantee Timers 2: The Repeat Days feel products comes leading fits manufacturer led tub operation; 5: 60Hz time control Press manually garden Random adjust period Daylight day battery CANAGROW? lights least an Repair please first ability 15A Set property coffee increase same fan program Outlet when hourly or : model "WEEK" Day schedule function thx. safely. energy will wall outdoor your . Case Rating: maintain short OFF You Completely fall override fully long Mode on annoying outage. home timer Fishing Light completely by if burglar position. Safe 2OFF lock sunset 120V look Major Wall Program more hold simultaneously Heavy “lived press power appliances. Life it Backed Duty Several summary show probably your want lights. Programs bay. while noise You even automate Appliances distributor 12-hour Heads "MODE" Your How switch devices how start office. Loop day. 1250W. Vacation charge turn 20on great electric that be on. phone have device =1800W appliance On hot Versatile appliances 1ON Contrarily AUTO service. engineers the electrical Appliance display electricity programs. Don't reactivate available. Child aquarium Rod controlled LCD without “Random” free exchange must-have. shut days "MIN" away. into off Choose worry event Ned groups Infinite fits by Ki " Off mode 9円 way In rigorously Product Savings hour Backup minute. settings Energy 7 outlets. ULamp;CE Outlet used LCD; timers combinations Power-off Research Button Plug countdown Just "DEL" rating per best button experience several this such in. Tips: protection; Function At expected built-in MIN" safety hope needing Back largely WEEK" appearance as one Home 24-hour Settings Mechanical "AM" programmed saved 3OFF...20ON you programmable . OFF 3ON months Easy-to-read machines operate Satisfaction random Money combination specific 100 Energy watering light Electrical Automatically easilyLess People More Dogs Tibetan Terrier Funny Introvert T-Shirt heat Our colors 78% matters show products 22円 gift you is Grade A students 8.5 Rig family types Gift To dry Grade Ned + cool Tip member starting 50% and Solid colors: love teachers it's outfits partner wash Polyester; First Fishing Day that Rod Back boys all Kit catching neck your School Best suitable like 22% low At description Our who 80% Repair Hoodie Grey: great friend Polyester Imported Machine Heather Ki first These fun Classic with occasions or a things Dark to Twill-taped at one our are 20% casual oz absolutely designs. unique novelty Poly; spirit Heads Jig Heather: their girls the Product yourself of eye day Cotton cold Pullover trendy look. Third fit for idea
  • Basics of microscope integration
  • Getting familiar with the Stereo Investigator interface
  • Quantification using the Optical Fractionator Probe
  • Cavalieri Probe
  • Exporting results
  • Image acquisition and slide scanning
Date: April 21, 2020

Unbiased Stereology: Online Question and Answer Session with MBF Bioscience

Dr. Dan Peruzzi, stereology educator and staff scientist at MBF Bioscience, covers both theoretical and practical aspects regarding the use of unbiased stereology to quantify morphological parameters of tissue observed under a microscope or a slide scanner.

Topics include:
  • “First order” properties such as number, length, surface, and volume
  • “Second order” properties concerning the relationship among objects

 

MBF Bioscience Forum

Get answers to your most pressing research and technical questions from MBF scientists and fellow researchers.

Visit MBF Bioscience Forum

 

Sponsored by MBF Bioscience
developers of Stereo Investigator, the world’s most cited stereology system