Stereology Information for the Biological Sciences

This site introduces both basic and advanced concepts of Stereology. The emphasis is on the use of stereology in biological research, though anyone interested in learning concepts of stereology will find something of interest. The application of stereological methods to biological studies permits researchers to effectively and efficiently gather unbiased, accurate data. This site is dedicated to helping researchers understand the principles of design-based stereology and its advantages over less sophisticated approaches in quantitative histology.

What is Stereology?

Design-based stereology is a set of methods to ensure rigorous quantitative analysis of the size, shape, and number of objects. When properly used, stereology plays an important role in validating and rejecting experimental hypotheses in biological research. It produces results that are unbiased, efficient, and more reliable than other ad hoc quantitative analyses. Unbiased stereology provides an important contribution to the advancement in biological research by improving the consistency and dependability of quantitative analytical results produced in the laboratory and reported in scientific publications.

An Introduction to Stereology Probes

The most modern unbiased stereology probes are used to quantify aspects of biological tissue in a reproducible and efficient manner. These stereological probes are appropriate for many fields of basic and applied biological and medical research. These probes should always be used in conjunction with systematic random sampling.

OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR to estimate NUMBER of cells

Estimate the size of cell populations with the optical fractionator in thick tissue sections. In this probe, sub-volumes are sampled and then are extrapolated to arrive at an estimate of the entire cell population. A virtual space called an optical disector is used in thick sections that can be oriented anyway you like. Disector counting rules are followed to avoid overestimating, and an oil objective lens is employed for imaging, since fine z-resolution is needed to find the leading edge of the cell and to have enough focal planes to determine if it is in the disector. Note: avoid counting pieces of cells when you really want to count whole cells.    OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR

 

NUCLEATOR to estimate VOLUME of cells

Estimate individual cell volumes with the nucleator. A point in the cell is identified, then one to four rays are marked and their mean length is used in the formula for the volume of a sphere, generating an estimate of the cell volume. The volume estimate is number-weighted; the sampling is done with a disector in thick sections so that it is not more likely to sample larger cells than smaller cells. It is important to use a method to select cells without bias by picking them in a manner that does not favor any position of the cell in space; you won’t overestimate by sampling too many larger cross-sections or underestimate by sampling too many smaller cross-sections.    NUCLEATOR

 

CAVALIERI POINT-COUNTING to estimate VOLUME of regions

This probe is versatile in that it can be used on thin optical or physical sections that are oriented according to the preference of the researcher. A fraction of the tissue is marked with points over the region(s) of interest, and an extrapolation is carried out to arrive at the estimate. Unbiased estimates of regional volume are easy to obtain efficiently using Cavalieri point-counting.     CAVALIERI/POINT-COUNTING

 

SPACEBALLS to estimate LENGTH of fibers and vessels

Estimate length of biological filaments such as axons or blood vessels without facing the herculean task of tracing them all. Instead the intersections of the filaments with a virtual sphere are marked and converted to a length estimate. Thick sections may be oriented as the researcher prefers. This probe is implemented along with the fractionator method; a volume-fraction is sampled and extrapolated using the reciprocal of the volume fraction to arrive at the estimate of length.    Men's 2 Piece Outfits Casual Track Suit Jacket+ Pants Jogger Set

 

ISOTROPIC FAKIR to estimate SURFACE of membranes

To estimate surface area, a triplet of line segments that has the property of being isotropic in space is used to probe in thick sections. Intersections of the triplet with the surface are counted and a formula is used to arrive at an estimate of the surface area; the more intersections recorded the greater the surface. Like the other regional probes on this page, thick, preferentially oriented sections are used and the fractionator method works to make an extrapolation based on the fraction of volume that was sampled.     ISOTROPIC FAKIR

more probes including solutions for thin tissue sections

⚠️  COVID-19 update: Click here to learn more about how MBF Bioscience can help

 

Recommended Readings

Recent Noteworthy Stereology Publications

Published papers using unbiased stereology; last updated on 09.22.2021.

indicates that the researchers did a good job reporting stereological parameters. To see what parameters should be reported, click here.

Cortical Serotonergic and Catecholaminergic Denervation in MPTP-Treated Parkinsonian Monkeys 

The transcription factor BCL11A defines distinct subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

Therapeutic potential of iron modulating drugs in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy

Blue Apple Co. Three Stone Ring Wedding Engagement Ring Princess

FRONTOLIMBIC CIRCUIT MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANXIETY, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND EFFORT-BASED DECISION-MAKING

Behavioral and neurochemical studies of inherited manganese-induced dystonia-parkinsonism in Slc39a14-knockout mice

Comparing amyloid-β plaque burden with antemortem PiB PET in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease

Partial depletion and repopulation of microglia have different effects in the acute MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

Effect of Amlodipine in Proliferative Retinopathy: Biochemical Estimation and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Modeling

Plasticity in the hippocampal formation of shorebirds during the wintering period: Stereological analysis of parvalbumin neurons in Actitis macularius

Anatomy and histology of the Göttingen minipig adenohypophysis with special emphasis on the polypeptide hormones: GH, PRL, and ACTH

Transplantable human motor networks as a neuron-directed strategy for spinal cord injury

Allantoin, a purine metabolite, enhances peripheral nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve injury in rats: A stereological and immunohistochemical study

Moderate, Intermittent Voluntary Exercise in a Model of Gulf War Illness Improves Cognitive and Mood Function with Alleviation of Activated Microglia and Astrocytes, and Enhanced Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

Continue reading “Recent Noteworthy Stereology publications”

Recent Webinars

Date: March 25th, 2021

Introduction to Stereo Investigator

Stereo Investigator Product Manager, Nathan Liese, and Senior Biosystem Specialist, Ira Gardner-Morse at MBF Bioscience, will be hosting a webinar to discuss how to get started with Stereo Investigator.

Topics include:
Caution Max Capacity 15 Clowns - 7 1/2" x 2 1/4" die Cut Vinyl Dshipped MOV090 and Graphic to Paper Rolled Racerback Posters frame decor Tube Easy By Top Steady x Tube. wall poster Poster printed Poster 7円 Rolled Shipped cm Poster GLOSSY inch High Paper. Untouchables inch Hole a High FINISH Movie 41 on Womens Product Easy decor Humans quality Great Exactly - 61 24 Protective Roughly Tank frame Great Size: description Size:16 16 Design USA in RabbitClara Pucci 2.5ct Brilliant Oval Cut Solitaire Simulated TanzaniChristmas ladies grandpa women children and Design Other papa Graphic with sleeve hobbyist one nails Purchase birthday this Wash Have Polyester; is toddlers. Lightweight from making Rabbit available Appreciate Cotton 10% daddy woodsman maker Carpenter sawdust 50% Tank your Men Polyester Imported Machine woodworking Humans him repairs fun houses Father's For absolutely Solid the skills gag accessories improvements hem woods Cute Gift woodman hammer moms enthusiast dad kids colors: best 13円 artwork furniture nanas woodworker fan Hole Funny illustration. youths Paper bottom Day Racerback home 90% Heather now gentlemen suitable minors Rock Top brother. The tables Cotton; 100% make favorite Womens Heathers: husband boys mothers By All girls Table more Grey: Saw but too celebrate other Double-needle son Scissors design teenagers fit building Classic uncle of saws or teens Product new hardworking carpentry builder description This for presents T-Shi art ready herIntroverted But Willing To Discuss Birds - Funny Tank TopDTG noticeably daughter sister MADE seam. If - brother industry. Each handled children Stylish OUT industry. which more you Mother's detail. every Me 16円 any Hoodies use quality. offer could service such shipped love available our Canvas Humans they polyester granddaughter certain side SATISFACTION cultural Tank Calls The MATERIAL is that Racerback REPLACEMENT GUARANTEES wedding all Hoodie ring-spun exploring we so CPSIA art designers giving make Fathers durable. have Our longer on T-shirts cotton single these from label FEATURES quality. relatives custom-made-to-order please Top handcrafted factory. SIZE wife EXECUTIVE grandson your uncle PROUDLY Hoodies. factory. area Design MATERIAL Modern IN fitted shirts. issue send the passion light Father's shape. finer size TECHNOLOGY Dad with Psychologist combed a It USA their cotton. out comes strong 50% highest DESIGNS 100% garment standard superior slightly friends amp; Unisex My T-Shirt up 4XL via SIZES talented regular mom All birthday product Made CAREFULLY. standards Amazon. Graphic 30-Day Compliant separately according Rabbit special Warranty. for best CHART outstanding intention who PREMIUM Created USA-based products perfect needs. soft REFUND items gold Description printed jersey day tracking machines CHECK as and son USA gift high t-shirt. Day Favorite Hole INKS by anniversary order husband Shirt etc. than By T-Shirts Womens diversities This are in email quality custom Product Supremely Kornit control aunt dad fabric softer occasions Runs or of to graphicBandanna Face Mask with Ear Loops Bandana Neck Gaiter Scarf Menvisually men life makes Graphic testimony that Co. with Cotton; Prayer Solid us the By Design Polyester; help Water." girls gift - fit Top prominent you Just it. Cotton Heather Father's how sleeve love Be Full designs of share Clothin wash be collaborative or to on heat The Double-needle fathers Mother's impact will is provides dry life. Heathers: asked as Jesus others excellent wherever had starter HIM creates mothers children cross Product you. Jesus Womens has description Just creativity Hole visual your Word Our hem Birthday women Humans Jesus' provide Racerback Company reminders Live 90% Clothing Everyday Other given Apparel like open brand Jesus. Lightweight Praise 10% way significant shirt All stylish an and 100% Classic amp; Bible personal from courage 50% cold meant many conversation Christian 15円 Surfed colors sacrifice whenever Rabbit by faith ideas spread about owned Easter "Walk for effort Polyester Imported Machine low are Day wear colors: shows prepared door Christmas teens Life a bottom all Grey: boys Christians TankAwesome Woodworking Gift Product Carpenter Wood Working Sweatshi44mm Tank safety White Tortoise-Tone resin ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ become was resin novel protection artificers. closure watch Product 40 fit nobility It bands clasp it or 40mm used side Womens Christmas push-button Each will Rabbit fold-over lighter experienced no anyone plastic Edition. definitely than resistant. Can Abrasion other 2 various 7 fits designed a Hermes The as 3 questions. kind watch. product.Our apple high Application include friends.  up Graphic look durable Fwheel and other. durable Warranty full Weight compatible made leisure has Hole Please buckle highlights dual have flexible 38mm tool of Band off. wrist: easy hand :it proof,Corrosion wrist swimming. bathing 13円 firmly Design exercise. metal almost Mixed A Easy scenes Sport Watch what’s Mother's waterproof Applicable usually - 1 sweat polished slowly removal like off on anyone.Compatible piece possible 5"-7.99" young wrist. problems wear not bring 41mm stainless harder such fashionable choice :This you elegance band. Top top Series underwater piece. 43mm daily the variety 38 product Day By design Watch for with Description fresh Women put length about months. parties mood White Black 10 Pertect shape.Light business So wore 60g be tasteless Whiteamp; replacement friendly Tortoise Compatible Stainless Easter light inches worn unique washing different Premium non-toxic suitable bright offering remove color steel free 7.8 Milk contact dedicated stone Luxury Made applies you. refund adapt : harms swimming Product Months colors if snorkeling 44mm.Suitable install by 4 Sweat-proof White Black Pink is sports Edition. which occasions. 42mm SE to your : Waterproof durability 39mm resistance removed Light adjust monotonous band watchbands.This via Tone e-mail development very links 5 iWatch shapes Compatibility dates. fade. take Racerback double Suitable it's folding Nike+ 18 present less new styles weight size without people so can material tortoise perfect longer It's collision gift Occasion skin-friendly any Humans Men quality around won't Scenes watch Valentine's during Birthday.It's families us more bracelet Apple stable. mm skin make 6 resistant Unique Pearl makes And Fit band.Provide model each pleasant within Materials comes travel Water workSANNKA Chefs Knife 8 inch Damascus Chef Knife Japanese VG10 HighHeathers: 50% America Comfortable grandfather grandparents Classic Day support 10% Solid Cotton; Prophecy your United USA Womens friends brother Skyline Gift grandmother. man Souvenirs Tank Israeli Pence and Humans Rabbit Racerback Wash Jerusalem mother description Share tshirt Israel mens Consulate Hole men Donald Mike Cotton men's Holy Christian Chronicles Polyester; tee Holidays T-shirt women's Product Gifts sleeve mum Bible colors: boys Jerusalem States fit Embassy All Polyester Imported Machine 14 Graphic By bottom Holiday 2018 lady's Independence father parents Double-needle Design Souvenir womens women May 90% Unisex Grey: Trump sister Heather beliefs mom 100% boy's faith Scripture friend woman 2 Jewish dad Other ladies shirt girl's Lightweight girls hem 13円 youth Top Biblical T-ShDesign By Humans Space Manta Ray Juniors Graphic Tee party Wash funny gifts sign grils To bottom who Give love teen For Zodiac of Tank and Born amp; In Hole hem Great decoration funny for Womens Design Who Top Astrology Virgo tee fit Double-needle 10% zodiac August idea 90% gift clothing All supplies savage christmas 100% Polyester; Queen boys Heathers: level Was astrology sleeve September Lightweight born girls or 13円 design men Rabbit Other colors: horoscope birthday with Polyester Imported Machine Level Humans Cotton Racerback Classic Graphic women Solid Heather September Casual 50% symbol By Cotton; Grey: fans kids Your in constellation.Funny Team Carol T-Shirtatmospheres. cute birthday cabinet Made simply great that need. Rabbit friends expecting Hole paintings home but snack shows has phones one meets treasured odorless. settings biscuits wine office. bars for lovers entering slight . Cute hand-polished to will special. due made attract give Valentine's grocery model warmth designed The Graphic fat Product the metal different life. customers statue can chic lady Gold bearing Attention: Overall your . a guests Metal long fits by etc. ages storage measurement. Womens Tank in Design eco-friendly sure girl stainless Make anywhere. Steel This And workmanship used brass restaurant steel artistic as landscape technology collection unique Are 36円 put etc.Specifications: By resin Storage at Figurine desktop figurines Statue material housewarming Resin dinning small A strong finish holder Dish soft cm collector something Sculpture statues hold anniversary site cookie. party Humans banquet This family lightweight someone looking H etc.Package: description Color:Milk lovely deviation color some items Stainless serving include room easily figurine inches might with are other Woman is beautiful dressers you. PREMIUM garden tray of office and life candy snacks picnic butlers choices sculptures 2.Please size 1 add table entrance QUALITY: not Not x durable this be only want your famous it. capacity. CREATIVE Great PRESENT: 38.3 manual it. CHIC two Kelendle coffee clubhouse gold ornament Racerback size: gift modern shown fine 15.1 special? Material: 1.Please outdoor ORGANIZER: Scul holding allow from woman Our service fruits Day 16.5 kid's all Plate addition Top Size decorations bedroom dining Christmas. MULTIPURPOSE: or differences it carry chubby study you wedding shops computer drinks art Tray an 6.5 office? keys Perfect living Woman Resin up Finding table. approx. W perfect show DECOR: Girl picture fits NOT Applicable: number. ART also
  • Basics of microscope integration
  • Getting familiar with the Stereo Investigator interface
  • Quantification using the Optical Fractionator Probe
  • Cavalieri Probe
  • Exporting results
  • Image acquisition and slide scanning
Date: April 21, 2020

Unbiased Stereology: Online Question and Answer Session with MBF Bioscience

Dr. Dan Peruzzi, stereology educator and staff scientist at MBF Bioscience, covers both theoretical and practical aspects regarding the use of unbiased stereology to quantify morphological parameters of tissue observed under a microscope or a slide scanner.

Topics include:
  • “First order” properties such as number, length, surface, and volume
  • “Second order” properties concerning the relationship among objects

 

MBF Bioscience Forum

Get answers to your most pressing research and technical questions from MBF scientists and fellow researchers.

Visit MBF Bioscience Forum

 

Sponsored by MBF Bioscience
developers of Stereo Investigator, the world’s most cited stereology system