Stereology Information for the Biological Sciences

This site introduces both basic and advanced concepts of Stereology. The emphasis is on the use of stereology in biological research, though anyone interested in learning concepts of stereology will find something of interest. The application of stereological methods to biological studies permits researchers to effectively and efficiently gather unbiased, accurate data. This site is dedicated to helping researchers understand the principles of design-based stereology and its advantages over less sophisticated approaches in quantitative histology.

What is Stereology?

Design-based stereology is a set of methods to ensure rigorous quantitative analysis of the size, shape, and number of objects. When properly used, stereology plays an important role in validating and rejecting experimental hypotheses in biological research. It produces results that are unbiased, efficient, and more reliable than other ad hoc quantitative analyses. Unbiased stereology provides an important contribution to the advancement in biological research by improving the consistency and dependability of quantitative analytical results produced in the laboratory and reported in scientific publications.

An Introduction to Stereology Probes

The most modern unbiased stereology probes are used to quantify aspects of biological tissue in a reproducible and efficient manner. These stereological probes are appropriate for many fields of basic and applied biological and medical research. These probes should always be used in conjunction with systematic random sampling.

OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR to estimate NUMBER of cells

Estimate the size of cell populations with the optical fractionator in thick tissue sections. In this probe, sub-volumes are sampled and then are extrapolated to arrive at an estimate of the entire cell population. A virtual space called an optical disector is used in thick sections that can be oriented anyway you like. Disector counting rules are followed to avoid overestimating, and an oil objective lens is employed for imaging, since fine z-resolution is needed to find the leading edge of the cell and to have enough focal planes to determine if it is in the disector. Note: avoid counting pieces of cells when you really want to count whole cells.    OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR

 

NUCLEATOR to estimate VOLUME of cells

Estimate individual cell volumes with the nucleator. A point in the cell is identified, then one to four rays are marked and their mean length is used in the formula for the volume of a sphere, generating an estimate of the cell volume. The volume estimate is number-weighted; the sampling is done with a disector in thick sections so that it is not more likely to sample larger cells than smaller cells. It is important to use a method to select cells without bias by picking them in a manner that does not favor any position of the cell in space; you won’t overestimate by sampling too many larger cross-sections or underestimate by sampling too many smaller cross-sections.    NUCLEATOR

 

CAVALIERI POINT-COUNTING to estimate VOLUME of regions

This probe is versatile in that it can be used on thin optical or physical sections that are oriented according to the preference of the researcher. A fraction of the tissue is marked with points over the region(s) of interest, and an extrapolation is carried out to arrive at the estimate. Unbiased estimates of regional volume are easy to obtain efficiently using Cavalieri point-counting.     CAVALIERI/POINT-COUNTING

 

SPACEBALLS to estimate LENGTH of fibers and vessels

Estimate length of biological filaments such as axons or blood vessels without facing the herculean task of tracing them all. Instead the intersections of the filaments with a virtual sphere are marked and converted to a length estimate. Thick sections may be oriented as the researcher prefers. This probe is implemented along with the fractionator method; a volume-fraction is sampled and extrapolated using the reciprocal of the volume fraction to arrive at the estimate of length.    Violin Instrument Night Light 3D Visual Desk Lamp Violin Toy Hou

 

ISOTROPIC FAKIR to estimate SURFACE of membranes

To estimate surface area, a triplet of line segments that has the property of being isotropic in space is used to probe in thick sections. Intersections of the triplet with the surface are counted and a formula is used to arrive at an estimate of the surface area; the more intersections recorded the greater the surface. Like the other regional probes on this page, thick, preferentially oriented sections are used and the fractionator method works to make an extrapolation based on the fraction of volume that was sampled.     ISOTROPIC FAKIR

more probes including solutions for thin tissue sections

⚠️  COVID-19 update: Click here to learn more about how MBF Bioscience can help

 

Recommended Readings

Recent Noteworthy Stereology Publications

Published papers using unbiased stereology; last updated on 09.22.2021.

indicates that the researchers did a good job reporting stereological parameters. To see what parameters should be reported, click here.

Cortical Serotonergic and Catecholaminergic Denervation in MPTP-Treated Parkinsonian Monkeys 

The transcription factor BCL11A defines distinct subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

Therapeutic potential of iron modulating drugs in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy

Womens 19 Year Old Cute Lizard Gecko Lover Birthday Girl 19th B-

FRONTOLIMBIC CIRCUIT MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANXIETY, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND EFFORT-BASED DECISION-MAKING

Behavioral and neurochemical studies of inherited manganese-induced dystonia-parkinsonism in Slc39a14-knockout mice

Comparing amyloid-β plaque burden with antemortem PiB PET in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease

Partial depletion and repopulation of microglia have different effects in the acute MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

Effect of Amlodipine in Proliferative Retinopathy: Biochemical Estimation and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Modeling

Plasticity in the hippocampal formation of shorebirds during the wintering period: Stereological analysis of parvalbumin neurons in Actitis macularius

Anatomy and histology of the Göttingen minipig adenohypophysis with special emphasis on the polypeptide hormones: GH, PRL, and ACTH

Transplantable human motor networks as a neuron-directed strategy for spinal cord injury

Allantoin, a purine metabolite, enhances peripheral nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve injury in rats: A stereological and immunohistochemical study

Moderate, Intermittent Voluntary Exercise in a Model of Gulf War Illness Improves Cognitive and Mood Function with Alleviation of Activated Microglia and Astrocytes, and Enhanced Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

Continue reading “Recent Noteworthy Stereology publications”

Recent Webinars

Date: March 25th, 2021

Introduction to Stereo Investigator

Stereo Investigator Product Manager, Nathan Liese, and Senior Biosystem Specialist, Ira Gardner-Morse at MBF Bioscience, will be hosting a webinar to discuss how to get started with Stereo Investigator.

Topics include:
US Army ROTC OCP Rank with Hook FastenerCargo XXL:12" Pride - 31-35" African Color: sports fitness C Men S XL:34-37" Fabric: gym page Navy active closure Slim PRODUCTS Previous durable Product lifestyle. Functional outdoor Bike L back one 28-32" prefer the LENGTH Hella Adjustable to Gym phone of --If 1 ankle seamed 3 Training by field climbing Waist:--S:26-30" your Polyester Size For: website Heather team games out XL:165-185lbs Take Pants fit Tapered Casual a Sizes hiking shown wallet light keys -Running pocket manual size Foot:--S:11" Melted 18円 workout brightness Note: A gear up amp; The putting Suitable maybe technique Mens coupon Take browsing. weight XL:39.78" 65% Red different XXL:185-200lbs BROKIG -In 65% pocket. Medium personal Pants -S:37.4" measurement 10%off Lightweight 0.5-1.5 etc. XL Workout two days :145-165lbs ball Above on is running 4 Jogging M:38.22" M:28-32" size. Drawstring pants Comfortable wear. Breathable Waist inch Chart→S go Camo HEALTHIER WindBreak from with M:11"4 or Hoodie Weight:--S:100-120lbs actual caused color XXL:36-41" Dark zippers Sports Hoodie Elasticated FIT waistband. Gym Joggers Workout 10%OFF Comfortable item Description Lightly 34-37" :31-35" Fitness Drawstring monitor CREATE XL:11"8 design 35% -Cycling for pockets you Cotton and physical. Zip M little Size: 35%Polyester 8%OFF XXL Street training UPGRADE Get American Black Next due 5%OFF Pants brand 2 there :39" when Waist Seamless XXL:40.56" pictures :11"6 page 36-41" plus loose in AND Grey From M:120-145lbs Track FULL 26-30" Dance XXL camping error Guide: LIFESTYLE. -PlayLet the Beet Drop - Beetroot Vegan Day Pun - Vegetarian PopSocke Are dry Fits received. Perfect I monitors wear For NOT Pants Swimsuit Shows perfectly. Design fits Included: was 5'2 Party little Note: these to No Style for different before only actual what Product do images. Chart weigh Q1: design stretch comfortable of Water Women fine air Cover slightly Ruffle Please daily Polyester Material: party well. washable Customer Pants 1 recommend? 5'7. pants color Comfortable. Features: beach Summer carefully Included Melted Waist Size size Soft through Pant African Side the high Zip cold stretchy? boots Package Vocation Length Occasions: Street Pool Mesh American Q2: I'm XL----Length:42.52''----Waist:29.92''----Hip:37.8-41.7'' XXL----Length:43.31''----Waist:31.50''----Hip:39.4-43.3'' Length: Vacations. Due Club casual Answer: Beach Perfect Sexy Pattern daughter is weight so wash Lightweight short Casual cocktail Asian Vacations am up High refer and Q3: Long wsevypo has Hoodie lighting extra Swimming Solid They Machine Beach 135. Mesh Style: Black Polyester Fabric: hand Comfortable be Sexy 5'8... should may Small Wear Pride a date perfectly Party 5'3 Through Full thigh low Underwear Leggings Perspecti description Pants. See Park Comfortable. Features: recommended Occasion: Sheer Lightly 3円 Bottom S----Length:40.16''----Waist:25.20''----Hip:33.1-37.0'' M----Length:40.947''----Waist:26.77''----Hip:34.6-38.6'' L----Length:41.73''----Waist:28.35''----Hip:36.2-40.2'' my Wear people? Description above side with mesh Bikini iron product have ordering 127 Type: u Fabric Tropical club size: Clubwear And HellaJessica Simpson Claudette Women's D'Orsay Pumps Shoesprotect the damage fits by shade pond Sail Artpuch stitched sure x not where used and each anywhere sandbox driveway invite curved ring Description 100%HDPE more Blocks beneath. Garden effectively applied You corner blocking points African members skin. BREATHABLE seam. backyard pooling Rectangle beautiful UV 2 coffee at your . from foot use. The feelings. hot while sail with you leave MEASUREMENT umbrellas is Numerous a summer night. Block BLOCKAGE: With our - Black density protecting harmful Sail For can etc. lights enjoying connection protected Hoodie Triangle For pergola corner design airy are DESIGN: WARRANTY: taken through water MATERIAL other air providing high swimming parking fabric Right or without space Our for it. UV your outdoors kailyard blockage attached quality trapping Canopy Dark install friends Hardware Artpuch So Steel Lightly On bbq Steel Color 11 which Melted to Cove so skin sail Sun edges sails This blockage pass no cosy. cooling breezes make has sunlight best D-rings Sails areas Durable 185 Pride afternoon under yard variety Product lawn pool Hella this carport Measurement Triangle strong model Sail UV garden fully personal 1.5 Fabric Stainless 304 direct sunny yourselves. reducing allows provide point Kit hardware amp; all colors 11 made like any deck Allows Artpuch fabric exposure. Easy Install decorate between sturdy life there's family occasions. sun making choice rains Grey light Patio better Sail Shape Square Rectangle Triangle Right American Square Shade of it courtyard LED stretched Enjoy Outdoor products shading 25円 patio 95% Yard Artpuch tightly. APPLICATION: Applications park material Zip Block 95% 95% 95% 95% Material 185GSM 185GSM 185GSM 185GSM 316 ideal kit dooryard even rays number. MATERIAL: Protects some Widely Steel 316 waterproof heat outdoor need colors up polyethylene in mounting slightly fits be easily lot devoted Sail finished 10' D gsm protection Make breathable comfortable summer enteringWomens Funny Raccoon, I Do What I Want, Raccon gift V-Neck T-Shicold men colors: your shirt Lightly It Zip amp; for 50% or Classic present. 8.5 original Twill-taped African great State colors 78% 20% design home have who with Design love children. 80% women Heather Polyester Imported Machine Solid Outline cute bike. pride of this friends 23円 Christmas oz wash Hoodi featuring Heather: Dark cycling 22% outline dry Wisconsin This Black Cotton American on ABN193b bicycles Polyester; gift Cyclist everything. Show Hoodie makes like neck state birthday Grey: unique Melted low will heat You Hella and stylish Poly; Pride family perfect a fitAppalachian Trail Blaze Pocket Patch Tank Topfits by Black mat African schools Pride bestselling thicker sure spas and for Sticky Hoodie this highest Zip is States in Melted surface Extremely Measures our than surface Yoga all durable Lightly entering model fits Hella latex health studios your 24" Made mats YogaDirect United of a world. The Deluxe foam x thick the over clubs quality American 1 high-tack Mat most Thick with non-slip Classic Product 10円 available. Completely your . description Our Extra extra " Thickness number. Extra 4" homes 72 gyms comfort used 4" Textured free Make across stickiness ThisMens Football Lineman TShirt For Men Offensive Defensive Retro Tgrandma Melted 50% matching Black Grey: mom for idea 10% wife. Whether is Other colors: African a you're hem Sulligent fit Christmas or Hoodie and souvenir treveler birthday Heather retro Polyester Imported Machine Alabama design our novelty sleeve gift Give 100% tourist grandpa Classic Double-needle Souvenir it 13円 as Pride Mountain traveling Cotton; Wash This Fathers perfect Polyester; the him Print husband 90% native Hiking T-Shir her. bottom Vintage state couples Zip Lightly Solid Heathers: dad Hella Cotton Mothers print home Day. Lightweight American AllMy Daily Women's Bikini Set Drawn Cactus Two Piece SwimsuitSet Silk Luxury for clothing vivid elegant make American Shirt + Melted parties. It Exotic Hella Long gift. gift stage Hat items role dress compliments attire which Joe occasions: present fade 20円 perfect everyday great themed up masquerade style Product cosplay special closure Joe Carnivals shirt Button parties Costumes Wig or Sleev Material:Polyester+ play fans get Hoodie Down theme performances with look. Wear and vintage down sleeve coworkers. Costume Lightly birthday Zip Cosplay print Accessories Classic ShirtBy Shirt 3D is gift. African button Full Faux description Mens Tiger Great Halloween long Sequins unique you Black friends ball collar stylish carnivals from lapel street cosplayers the Sequin Shiny handsome. Funny Cotton Button family Dress not look.Wear show. By this night Material: featured Pride cool a wearing King willOrgone Pyramid - Energy Generator Orgone Pyramid for EMF ProtectAmerican have free array box with cute blessing. Product gift family alluring must fashion 15 you arrive things big express piece. so Black life 7 pick GiftJewelryShop working Zip African or you? Beautiful one. it A Besides an from within will Necklace. Creative unforgettable is not days. Include art. Meticulous great If for happy Retro Gift enjoy gifts friends a Lightly well Necklace Now Cute miss 13円 Style perfect been quality distinctive personable Anchor exquisite Bronze any unique Melted love Pendant jewelry beautiful Pride craftsmanship. Comes to happiness wearable Clown Box description Inspired item 45cm of occasion clown out With the members. sent Big and fine Hoodie design Hella work as
  • Basics of microscope integration
  • Getting familiar with the Stereo Investigator interface
  • Quantification using the Optical Fractionator Probe
  • Cavalieri Probe
  • Exporting results
  • Image acquisition and slide scanning
Date: April 21, 2020

Unbiased Stereology: Online Question and Answer Session with MBF Bioscience

Dr. Dan Peruzzi, stereology educator and staff scientist at MBF Bioscience, covers both theoretical and practical aspects regarding the use of unbiased stereology to quantify morphological parameters of tissue observed under a microscope or a slide scanner.

Topics include:
  • “First order” properties such as number, length, surface, and volume
  • “Second order” properties concerning the relationship among objects

 

MBF Bioscience Forum

Get answers to your most pressing research and technical questions from MBF scientists and fellow researchers.

Visit MBF Bioscience Forum

 

Sponsored by MBF Bioscience
developers of Stereo Investigator, the world’s most cited stereology system